Divi Project

Compressibility of the transaction graph for the proof-of-protocol in a blockchain

German Luna Patiarroy, Lead Blockchain Developer, The Divi Project

Present-day societies are facing an ever-increasing adoption of cryptography-based currencies (aka. crypto-currencies) developed atop the concept of a blockchain - a collection of “blocks” each committing to other “blocks” providing an immutable history of transactions that can be replicated in a permissionless fashion. In spite of the importance of blockchain technology, not a lot of work has been done on trying to improve the main limitation of blockchains: storage requirements. Most work trying to address this problem has focused on reducing the storage footprint of future data. However, this doesn’t fundamentally solve the problem that ever-increasing amounts of storage space will be required.

A blockchain consists conceptually of 6 systems:

  • Data System (the shared data between the users of the blockchain)
  • Communication System (the mechanisms of communicating data)
  • Consensus System (the rules of the blockchain dictating what modifications of the data layer are and are not allowed)
  • Incentive System (the incentives or rewards that can be claimed by users)
  • Proof of Permission (the requirement for some modifications of the data system to be accepted)
  • Proof of Protocol (the proof that the protocol has been followed)

The computer network that maintains a blockchain operates by (1) sharing data through the communication system, (2) validating the rules of the consensus system have been correctly applied to the communicated data, (3) verifying the provided and applicable proofs, and finally (4) updating their local copy of the blockchain accordingly.

Among the many components that a blockchain has, one of the most important ones is the ‘proof-of-protocol’. A piece of data that can automatically prove to any (reasonably capable) person that the protocol has been followed. Satoshi’s (Bitcoin creator) solution to this problem was to encode the data as blocks in a chain, hence the name blockchain. However, this begs the question about whether it’s possible to reversibly compress the data in a blockchain or whether we should buy stock in data storage companies and begin hoarding petabyte drives.

Although the main data structure of a blockchain is the chain of blocks, a more fundamental and underlying data structure is the transaction graph. In a financial context, the links represent the relation between spent coins and their new owners. These contain the proofs of permission.

Problem Statement

  • Determine to what extent a transaction graph can be compressed (for later decompression) or what obstructions exist to its compression.
  • What compression ratio can you achieve for an ordered sequence of cryptographic hashes?

Pre-requisie Knowledge

  • Pure Math
  • Mathematical proof writing
Nice to Have
  • Undergraduate level Cryptography
  • Python programming (to write any prototype code or provide simulations and illustrations as needed)
Cüneyt Gürcan Akçora
Cüneyt Gürcan Akçora
Assistant Professor of Computer Science and Statistics
Abhishek Kumar Shukla
Abhishek Kumar Shukla
Postdoctoral fellow
Alexandra McSween
Alexandra McSween
Recent Graduate
Shang Li
Shang Li
Graduate Student
Evan MacNeil
Evan MacNeil